AskDefine | Define tsunami

Dictionary Definition

tsunami n : a huge destructive wave (especially one caused by an earthquake) [syn: tidal wave]

User Contributed Dictionary

English

Etymology

津波 / 津浪 (つなみ, tsunami), seismic sea wave, lit. “harbour wave”.

Pronunciation

  • , /tsuːˈnɑːmi/, /tsu:nA:mi/
  • , /suːˈnɑːmi/, /su:nA:mi/
    Rhymes: -ɑːmi

Noun

  1. A very large and destructive wave, generally caused by a tremendous disturbance in the ocean, such as an undersea earthquake or volcanic eruption.

Quotations

Synonyms

Derived terms

Translations

large, destructive wave generally caused by a tremendous disturbance in the ocean

Czech

Noun

  1. tsunami

Dutch

Etymology

From 津波/津浪 (つなみ, tsunami), “harbour wave”.

Pronunciation

Noun

  1. tsunami

French

Etymology

From 津波/津浪 (つなみ, tsunami), “harbour wave”.

Pronunciation

Noun

tsunami (plural tsunamis or tsunami)
  1. tsunami

Japanese

Noun

  1. tsunami, tidal wave

Extensive Definition

A tsunami () is a series of waves created when a body of water, such as an ocean, is rapidly displaced. Earthquakes, mass movements above or below water, some volcanic eruptions and other underwater explosions, landslides, underwater earthquakes, large asteroid impacts and testing with nuclear weapons at sea all have the potential to generate a tsunami. The effects of a tsunami can be devastating due to the immense volumes of water and energy involved. Since meteorites are small, they will not generate a tsunami.
The Greek historian Thucydides was the first to relate tsunamis to submarine quakes, He was thus the first in the history of natural science to correlate quakes and waves in terms of cause and effect:
The cause, in my opinion, of this phenomenon must be sought in the earthquake. At the point where its shock has been the most violent the sea is driven back, and suddenly recoiling with redoubled force, causes the inundation. Without an earthquake I do not see how such an accident could happen.
The Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus (Res Gestae 26.10.15-19) describes the typical sequence of a tsunami including an incipient earthquake, the sudden retreat of the sea and a following gigantic wave on the occasion of the 365 A.D. tsunami devastating Alexandria.

Tsunami and the Bible

Some recent work by scholars (Egyptologists, Israeli and others), geologists and oceanographers (including Dr Iain Stewart of University of Plymouth, UK), indicates that the Santorini eruption (about 1615 BC) may have caused the devastation of the Egyptian armies that is mentioned in the Exodus. The Exodus is dated as occurring between 1290 and 1340 BC. It is unlikely that the details were recorded in the immediate aftermath and there was probably a delay in the writing of the account. While there is a discrepancy of about 300 years, given the circumstances surrounding the dating of the Santorini eruption, it is possible that the two events did coincide. Further support for this is that the southeastern corner of the Mediterranean was marshland prior to the construction of the Suez Canal and was a known source of reeds. Is the "Red Sea" a wrong interpretation of the "Reed Sea," and did the Santorini or Minoan eruption coincide with the Exodus? There is ongoing research into this including drilling boreholes to look for tsunamite - the deposit left by tsunamis and other evidence to support or disprove this theory.

See also

Footnotes

References

  • Iwan, W.D., editor, 2006, Summary report of the Great Sumatra Earthquakes and Indian Ocean tsunamis of 26 December 2004 and 28 March 2005: Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, EERI Publication #2006-06, 11 chapters, 100 page summary, plus CD-ROM with complete text and supplementary photographs, EERI Report 2006-06. [www.eeri.org] ISBN 1-932884-19-X
  • Dudley, Walter C. & Lee, Min (1988: 1st edition) Tsunami! ISBN 0-8248-1125-9 link
  • Kenneally, Christine (December 30 2004). "Surviving the Tsunami". Slate. link
  • Macey, Richard (January 1 2005). "The Big Bang that Triggered A Tragedy", The Sydney Morning Herald, p 11 - quoting Dr Mark Leonard, seismologist at Geoscience Australia.
  • Lambourne, Helen (March 27 2005). "Tsunami: Anatomy of a disaster". BBC News. link
  • abelard.org. tsunamis: tsunamis travel fast but not at infinite speed. Website, retrieved March 29 2005. link
  • The NOAA's page on the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami
  • Tappin, D; 2001. Local tsunamis. Geoscientist. 11-8, 4-7.

External links

Articles and websites

tsunami in Afrikaans: Tsoenami
tsunami in Arabic: تسونامي
tsunami in Min Nan: Hái-tiòng
tsunami in Banyumasan: Tsunami
tsunami in Belarusian (Tarashkevitsa): Цунамі
tsunami in Bosnian: Cunami
tsunami in Breton: Tsunami
tsunami in Bulgarian: Цунами
tsunami in Catalan: Tsunami
tsunami in Czech: Tsunami
tsunami in Welsh: Tsunami
tsunami in Danish: Tsunami
tsunami in German: Tsunami
tsunami in Estonian: Tsunami
tsunami in Spanish: Tsunami
tsunami in Esperanto: Cunamo
tsunami in Basque: Tsunami
tsunami in Persian: سونامی
tsunami in French: Tsunami
tsunami in Western Frisian: Tsûnamy
tsunami in Irish: Súnámaí
tsunami in Galician: Tsunami
tsunami in Gujarati: ત્સુનામી
tsunami in Korean: 지진 해일
tsunami in Hindi: सूनामी
tsunami in Croatian: Cunami
tsunami in Hungarian: Cunami
tsunami in Indonesian: Tsunami
tsunami in Interlingua (International Auxiliary Language Association): Tsunami
tsunami in Icelandic: Flóðbylgja
tsunami in Italian: Tsunami
tsunami in Hebrew: צונמי
tsunami in Javanese: Tsunami
tsunami in Swahili (macrolanguage): Tsunami
tsunami in Kurdish: Tsunamî
tsunami in Latvian: Cunami
tsunami in Lithuanian: Cunamis
tsunami in Macedonian: Цунами
tsunami in Marathi: त्सुनामी
tsunami in Malay (macrolanguage): Tsunami
tsunami in Mongolian: Цунами
tsunami in Dutch: Tsunami
tsunami in Dutch Low Saxon: Vleuigolve
tsunami in Japanese: 津波
tsunami in Norwegian: Tsunami
tsunami in Norwegian Nynorsk: Flodbølgje
tsunami in Oromo: Tsunamis
tsunami in Polish: Tsunami
tsunami in Portuguese: Tsunami
tsunami in Romanian: Tsunami
tsunami in Russian: Цунами
tsunami in Albanian: Tsunami
tsunami in Sicilian: Tsunami
tsunami in Simple English: Tsunami
tsunami in Slovak: Cunami
tsunami in Slovenian: Cunami
tsunami in Serbian: Цунами
tsunami in Sundanese: Tsunami
tsunami in Finnish: Tsunami
tsunami in Swedish: Tsunami
tsunami in Tamil: ஆழிப்பேரலை
tsunami in Telugu: సునామి
tsunami in Thai: คลื่นสึนามิ
tsunami in Vietnamese: Sóng thần
tsunami in Turkish: Tsunami
tsunami in Ukrainian: Цунамі
tsunami in Yiddish: צונאמי
tsunami in Contenese: 海嘯
tsunami in Chinese: 海啸

Synonyms, Antonyms and Related Words

apoplexy, billow, bore, breakers, breakup, cataclysm, chop, choppiness, chopping sea, climax, comb, comber, convulsion, diastrophism, dirty water, disaster, eagre, fit, gravity wave, ground swell, heave, heavy sea, heavy swell, lift, lop, overthrow, paroxysm, peak, popple, quake, riffle, ripple, rise, roll, roller, rough water, scend, sea, send, spasm, stroke, surf, surge, swell, temblor, tidal bore, tidal wave, tide wave, trough, undulation, upheaval, water wave, wave, wavelet, white horses, whitecaps
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